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          When the election by those in authority proved futile, it was given up and only “ might is right” became the criteria, namely, whoever subdues others and binds them under his sway and control, is accepted as the caliph of the Prophet(AS)and his true successor  (I seek refuge in God). These are those self adopted principles in the face of which all the Prophet’s(AS) sayings uttered in the “Feast of the Relatives” in the night of hijrah , at the battle of Tabuk,  on the occasion of conveying the Quranic chapter “ al-Bara’ah” (at-Tawbah; chapter no. 9) and at Ghadir (the spring of) Khumm. The strange thing is that when each of the first three caliphates is based on one individual’s choice, how can this very right to choose be denied to The Prophet(AS) himself, particularly when this was the only way to end all the dissentions, namely that Prophet(AS) should have himself settled it and saved the community from disturbances and spared it from leaving this decision in the hands of people who were themselves involved in personal aims and objects. This is the correct procedure which stands to reason and which has also the support of The Prophet’s(AS) definite sayings.


          3.Hayyan ibn as-Samin al-Hanafi of Yamamah was the chief of the tribe Bani Hanifah and the master of fort and army. Jabir is the name of his younger brother while as-Asha, whose real name was Maymum ibn Qays ibn Jandal, enjoyed the position of being his bosom friend and led decent and happy life through his bounty. In this verse, he has compared his current life with the previous one, that is, the days when he roamed about in search of livelihood and those when he led a happy life in Hayyan’s company. Generally Amir-ul-momineen’s (AS) quoting of this verse has been taken to compare this troubled period with the peaceful days passed under the care and protection of The Prophet(AS) when he was free from all sorts of troubles and enjoyed mental peace. But taking into account, the occasion for making this comparison and the subject matter of the verse, it would not be farfetched if it is taken to indicate the difference between the unimportant position of those in power during The Prophet’s(AS) life time and the authority and power enjoyed by them after him, that is, at one time, in the days of The Prophet(AS), no heed was paid to them because of Ali’s(AS) personality but now the time had so changed that the same people were masters of the affairs of the Muslim world.



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